Viticulture

According to dates of 2015 year vineyards area in Armenia was 17,300 hectare

vineyards.

Regions are

1. Ararat /800-1000m. a.s.l

2. Armavir/900-1100m. a.s.l.

3. Aragatsotn /900-1400m. a.s.l.

4. Vayots Dzor /1000-1600m. a.s.l./

5.Tavoush /400-1000m a.s./

6.Syunik /500-1600m. a.s.l/

The regions of Armavir and Ararat account for largest portion of vineyards in the country, making up about 70% of all vineyards in Armenia (as of 2015). In 2015, compared to period between 2010 and 2012, vineyards in 5 regions have recorded growth. The Aragatsotn region has recorded the highest expansion, by 15%. The region of Kotayk has recorded a decline by over half.

In ampelographic collections of Armenia 140 varieties are preserved, among which 125 are local and 15 are foreign. Of the local ones, 70 are old indigenous varieties, this means 50 % of all preserved 140 varieties.

There are more than 400 native varieties.

Nowadays of the 55 cultivating varieties 30 are white, 25 are red. 31 of these are used in winemaking, 21 as table grapes and 3 for raisin making.

 

Armenian indigenous grape varieties

Cultivating varieties, 30 are white and 25 are red. Thirty-one of these are used in winemaking, 21 as table grapes, and 3 for raisin making. Some international varieties that are most commonly grown and used in Armenia include Chardonnay, Syrah, Pinot Noir, and Merlot. In the table below, you can find some of the more significant endemic and crossed Armenian grape varieties.

 

 

Endemic

Crossed

Red

Areni Noir, Kakhet, Chargi Yerkser,

Karmir Kteni, Karmir Koteni, Repse, Salli,

Sev krop, Seyrak Areni, Sveni, Tozot,

Vank

Haghtanak, Tigrani,

Charentsi, Karmrahyut,

Meghrabuyr, Karmrashat

White

Mskhali, Voskehat, Garan Dmak, Khatoun

Kharji, Apoyi Khaghogh, Chilar, Lalvari

Kangoun, Burmunq, Azateni,

Hyutarat, Nairi, Urarty

 

The major grape varieties:

 

 
Areni Noir -  is an Armenian indigenous red grape variety.

  The bunch is medium size, 13-17 cm length, 9-11 cm width, mostly conical, dense. Berry skin is rough, pulp is juicy and fleshy. Pulp is colorless. Grape is used for production of high quality red dry wines, as well as semi-dry, aged wines.

Time of ripening: second half of October.
Yield per plant: 4-5 kg.

Bunch weight: 200-220 g.
 
Productivity – 8-12 t/ha.

Sugar content: 19-23%.

Titratable acidity: 6.5-7.1 g/L.

Frost resistance is poor.

 

Voskehat- is an Armenian indigenous white grape variety.

Synonyms- «Kharji», «Kanachkeni», «Katvi achq», «Khach Kharji».
The bunch is medium size, sometimes big, 14-18 cm length, 9-11 cm width, mostly conical, very dense.
Berry skin is thick, transparent. The pulp is juicy, sweet and with pleasant taste.
Grape is used for production of high quality white dry wines, as well as semi-dry, aged wines.

Time of ripening: middle of October.

Yield per plant: 4-5 kg.

Bunch weight: 190-210 g.
 
Productivity – 8-13 t/ha.

Sugar content: 21-27%.

Titratable acidity: 4.0-6.5 g/L.

Frost resistance is poor.
 

Karmrahyut- is an Armenian crossed red variety.

It is a crossing of Hadis grape variety and Amurskiy x Cherniy sladkiy seedling. The bunch is medium size, 15-18 cm length, 10-12 cm width, conical, medium dense. Berry skin is thick. The pulp is red colored, juicy. Grape is used for production of high quality red wines.

Time of ripening: middle of September.

Yield per plant: 6-8 kg.
Bunch weight: 190-220 g.
 
Productivity – 16-18 t/ha.

Sugar content: 23-26%.

Titratable acidity: 6.5-7.5 g/L.

Frost resistance is average.
 

 

Haghtanak- is an Armenian crossed red variety.

It is a crossing of (Kopchak x Alicante Buche) x Saperavi.
The bunch is medium, 15-18 cm length, 10-12 cm width, cylindrical-conical, medium dense. The skin is medium thick, covered by waxy layer.
The flesh is pulpy and juicy, the pulp is red colored. Grapes are used for production of high quality red wines.

Time of ripening: beginning of October.

Yield per plant: 8-9 kg.

Productivity –18-20 t/ha.

Bunch weight: 260-280 g.

Sugar content: 20-23 %.

Titratable acidity: 6.5-8.0 g/L.

Frost resistance –average. 

 

 

 Kangun- is a crossed, Armenian white grape variety.

It is a crossing from the Chardonay x Plavay and Rkatsiteli varieties. The bunch is big size, 18-20 cm length, 6-8 cm width, cylindrical, dense.
Berry skin is medium thick. The pulp is juicy. Grape is used for production of high quality white dry wines, as well as for cognac and sparkling wine.

Time of ripening: end of September.

Yield per plant: 6-8 kg.

Bunch weight: 190-220 g.
 
Productivity – 15-20 t/ha.

Sugar content: 25-28%.

Titratable acidity: 5.5-7.0 g/L.

Frost resistance is average.


 

 Kakhet- Synonyms: «Sev Kakhet», «Sev Milagh».

The bunch is small, sometimes medium size, 12-20 cm length, 7-11 cm width, cylindrical or cylindrical-conical, dense, sometimes loose.
The skin is rough, elastic, covered with waxy layer, rich in tannins. The flesh is pulpy and juicy. The juicy is colorless.
Kakhet's color peculiarities make it a very good variety for the production of red wines.

Time of ripening: third decade of September or beginning of October.

Yield per plant: 8-10 kg
Productivity –15-17 t/ha

Bunch weight: 260-280 g 

Sugar content: 21.5-25 %

Titratable acidity: 5.5-8.0 g/L

Frost resistance –weak



  Garan DmakSynonyms: «Halivoruk», «Anali xaxor», «Diq xarji», «Ankoch xarji», «Cancar xarji».

Grapes are used for making high quality table, strong and dessert wines, also for brandy production. 
The bunch is medium size, 12-18 cm length, 10-12 cm width, cylindrical-conical, mostly dense. Berry skin is rough, pulp is juicy and fleshy. 

Time of ripening: end of September.
Yield per plant: 5-7 kg.

Bunch weight: 200-230 g.
 
Productivity – 12-15 t/ha.

Sugar content: 21-25%.

Titratable acidity: 4.5-6.4 g/L.

Frost resistance is poor.




  Mskhali - Synonyms: «Dolband», «Spitak Khaghogh».

The bunch is medium size or big, 16-28 cm length, 7-15 cm width, cylindrical-conical or conical, sometimes branched, loose or dense. The skin is thick, transparent, covered by a slight waxy layer. The skin has brown points, it is elastic and it is easy to peel. The flesh is slightly juicy with a very pleasant taste. Grapes are used for making high quality table, strong and dessert wines, also for brandy production, as well as for fresh consumption.

Time of ripening: third ten days of September.

Yield per plant: 6.5-7.5 kg.
 
Bunch weight: 230-250 g.
 
Productivity –12-13 t/ha.

Sugar content: 19-22%.

Titratable acidity: 4.2 - 6.8 g/L.

Frost resistance is poor.




 Meghrabuyr – crossing from (Madlen Anjevin x Shasla Muskatnaya) and (Ichkimar x Yanvarski Cherni) seedlings.

The bunch is medium size, 16-19 cm length, 10-12 cm width, conical or cylindrical-conical, dense. The berry round-shaped, dark violet. 
Middle tick skin is covered with slight waxy layer. Pulp is juicy and fleshy, with Muscat like light  aromas.
Grape is used for production of red wines of high quality, dessert wines with Muscat flavor.

Time of ripening: beginning of October.
Yield per plant: 10-11 kg.

Productivity –17-23 t/ha.
Bunch weight: 260-300 g.
 
Sugar content: 25-27 %.

Titratable acidity: 8.0-10.0 g/L.

Frost resistance – high (from -24 to -25⁰C).